By Thul R., Smith G. D., Coombes S.
We current a bidomain fire-diffuse-fire version that allows mathematical research of propagating waves of increased intracellular calcium () in residing cells. Modeling unencumber as a threshold technique permits the categorical development of touring wave recommendations to probe the dependence of wave velocity on physiologically very important parameters reminiscent of the brink for unlock from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol, the speed of resequestration from the cytosol to the ER, and the complete  (cytosolic plus ER). curiously, linear balance research of the bidomain fire-diffuse-fire version predicts the onset of dynamic wave instabilities resulting in the emergence of waves that propagate in a back-and-forth demeanour. Numerical simulations are used to substantiate the presence of those so-called 'tango waves' and the dependence of wave velocity at the overall .
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Additional resources for A bidomain threshold model of propagating calcium waves
Size effects in the chemistry of small clusters 29 Figure 20: (a) CO2 transients for representative temperatures obtained for Pd30/MgO(1 0 0)/Mo(1 0 0) model catalysts. The insets represent the enlarged transients. (b) The evolution of the maximum TOF as a function of temperature. 4. , between E350 and E500 K and in the third temperature region above 500 K. Note that the third temperature region which is characterized by decreasing reaction rates with temperature due to possible cluster diffusion and agglomeration is not analyzed further.
This becomes clear when comparing the TOF obtained for the clusters to values obtained for Pd nanoparticles supported on MgO(1 0 0) given in the literature [64, 67]. 8–13 nm in diameter measured in molecular beam experiments under steady-state conditions. However, at higher pressures (Pd nanoparticles supported on SiO2) values of 20–2000 were obtained. An inﬂuence of the particle size on the reaction rate was also observed for Pd nanoparticles supported on MgO(1 0 0) by Henry et al. [64, 68]. , the CO diffusion from the support to the particles.
In this case both pathways would have similar activation energies. Alternatively, only a small barrier for CO diffusion from the substrate onto the cluster exists. Unfortunately, these two scenarios cannot be distinguished by experimental means and additional information is required from ab initio DFT calculations. Recently, however, Huber et al. performed DFT calculations for the CO oxidation on PdN (N ¼ 4–9) clusters . They found that magnesiasupported Pd clusters form crystalline PdxOy clusters upon reaction with oxygen.