By Lower S.K.
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Additional resources for Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s)
3 unit. 3, By following this example, you should be able to construct a similar diagram for any monoprotic acid, weak or strong; the only numbers you need are the pKa of the acid, and its nominal concentration [A− ]. The resulting graph will provide a reasonably precise indication of the concentrations of all four related species in the solution over the entire pH range. The only major uncertainty occurs within about one pH unit of the pKa , where the lines undergo changes of slope from 0 (horizontal) to ±1.
The complementary processes of photosynthesis and respiration drive a global cycle in which carbon passes slowly between the atmosphere and the lithosphere, and more rapidly between the atmosphere and the oceans. 2 Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere CO2 has probably always been present in the atmosphere in the relatively small absolute amounts now observed. g. CaSiO3 + CO2 −→ CaCO3 + SiO2 have likely had a moderating influence on the CO2 abundance throughout geological time. 5 ) atm. In a crowded and poorly-ventilated room, PCO2 can be as high as 100 × 10−4 atm.
These two species are capable of accepting protons and are therefore the source of acid neutralizing capacity. However, any H3 O+ ions already present in the solution will detract from the [ANC], so we need to subtract this quantity: [ANC] = [A− ] + [OH− ] − [H+ ] = Ca α1 + [OH− ] − [H+ ] (57) [ANC] expresses the net deficiency of protons with respect to the reference level of HA and H2 O. In other words, [ANC] is the number of moles per litre of protons that must be added to fill all the proton-empty levels up to HA.